History of the O'Brien Clan Heraldry
Garaidh Ó Briain
Burke's Peerage has listed that the arms of Irish King Brian Boru are "Gules three lions passant guardant per pale Or and Argent." The is not correct, and many believe in Burke's statement, but heraldry as such didn't exist in 1014 A.D. Varios annals tell of Irish kings and their banners with symbol and color descriptions that existed before the Anglo-Normans came, but these symbolic banners were not hereditary. Following is a history of the heraldry of the O'Brien Clan.
First one must understand the principle of heraldry. Its main purpose was to identify an individual on the battlefield . In time those symbols became hereditary and also associated with property, i.e., nobility. Means of differencing the basic heraldic symbol came into use to show the structure of a family and so that the symbols, although slightly modified, would show relationship to the original arms and give individual identity. The belief that a coat-of-arms belongs to all of a common surname is incorrect in the heraldry of the British Isles. Heraldic arms are granted (in the early days they were assumed) to an individual and his heirs male forever. A difference in this is in Scotland, where each individual must matriculate their arms in the court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms.1
Although the heraldic records of Ireland have been in existence since the first herald Sir John Chandos, K.G. in the 1300s was appointed by King Richard II. Ireland's rules have followed those of England in most ways. The first modern Chief Herald of Ireland was Edward MacLysaght, who wrote several books on Irish family history and heraldry. The Chief Herald wrote that the basic arms of the clan didn't just belong to the chief but to all clan members, and labeled them as ' sept (clan) arms. ' Under the Gaelic Order the clan lands belonged to the people and not to the chief. So the basic clan arms belong to the people of the clan. This position of MacLysaght has caused great debate in the circles of heraldic research, but the Chief Herald strongly wrote that one could display them on their wall to show clan membership, but if one wanted to use those arms on stationary, silver, etc., as individual arms for identity, then MacLysaght advised that that individual petition for a grant of arms from the Chief Herald's office in Dublin.2
Individual arms are considered a personal matter by the herald's office. One's personal arms can reflect the clan arms or be totally different, which is unlike Scotland where if one has a surname of one of the Scottish clans or families, the heraldic design is based upon those of the chief's arms. Keeping the clan or family in order heraldically.3
Irish heraldic arms can be found designed in three categories, lending a distinct style to Irish heraldry:4
" 1) Norman - military in origin. Use of three identical symbols.Use of ordinaries, simplicity. (see ill. 1)
" 2) Anglo- Irish - Concerned with fa mily relationships and status. Use of ordinaries with Gaelic symbols. A main charge surrounded with three identical but different charges. (see ill. 2)
" 3) Gaelic or Irish - Mythological. Use of Gaelic symbols. Simple or complex designs. Main charge held by supporters. (see ill. 3 & 4)
(Heraldic artwork from Irish Family Histories.)
Tournaments that were held in Scotland, England, and Continental Europe contributed heavily to the advancement of heraldry and its pageantry to promote the individual knight and his heraldic arms. But no tournaments were ever held in Ireland. Heraldry was used on banners and in sealing documents and for property identification. One of the unique aspects to Irish heraldry is that the Gaelic symbols are also literary, they are symbols which recall to the viewer Irish mythology and the Emerald Isle's ancient history. An example is the arm of Nuadu, king of the De Danann gods, who's hand is holding a sword. Nuadu lost his arm in battle. Because he was disfigured, Nuadu no longer could be king, and had to abdicate. The divine silversmith, Dian Cech, fashioned a silver arm for Nuadu and with magic attached it to his body making it possible for him to reclaim his kingship, which he did.3 The arm (or hand) holding a sword is recalling this event in Irish literature. Nuadu in Old Gaelic means ' cloud maker. ' 5
Other heraldic literary or mythological symbols:
" Boar - fierceness, food of the Gods.
" Flaming sword - sword of light and truth.
" Hand holding sword - story of Nuadu of the silver hand.
" Stag - sovereignty.
" Serpents and lizards - rebirth and renewal.
" Hound - myth heros of Cuchulainn and Curoi mac Daire.
" Tree - kingship and druids.
" Salmon - wisdom. High-Kingship of Tara.
" Hand - the derbfine or true family.
" Red Hand - symbol of the O'Neills of Ulster (also the story of a king who cut off his hand and flung it to shore to be the first to touch land making his claim first).6
" Cross - Christianity.
" Hand holding cross - purely a Gaelic charge usually denoting the "Kind red of St. Columcille."
" Sun, moon and stars - reaching back to pre-christian times.
The first known symbol of the O'Briens was the battle flag of the Dál gCais which is described in the Book of Leinster as being dun g (brown), purple, red and gold (yellow). But the design is unknown. The Dalcassians held the right to lead the King of Munster's army into battle. 7 Their territory was northern Munster Province called Thomond which today is the counties of Clare, Limerick and northern Tipperary. (See ill. 19)
At this same time is the banner of Brian Boru. Two sources give different designs. One design is that he used three lions, yet the other source has a blue flag with an arm holding a sword with a sun. The latter design is possibly correct.8
Nuadu's arm was used by the early kings of Munster, who
belonged to the Eóghanacht (MacCarthy) dynasty. These Eóghanacht kings throne name was ' Mogha Nuadhad, ' which translated means, ' the slave of Nuada. ' This
dynasty setup relations with the Schottenkloster of St. James Abbey at Regensburg,
Bavaria, Germany. This Irish monastery used the symbol of Nuadu's arms since many of the
monks and abbots were from Munster and its benefactors were Munster kings and noblemen.
The abbey arms are like that of the province of Connacht and the abbey's arms are a
dimidation of the double eagle of the Holy Roman Empire impalling an embowed arm holding a
sword, i.e., the half eagle is for the Holy Roman Empire and the sword arm for the kings
of Munster.9 (See ill. 5.) When the Uí Briain became kings of Munster and High-Kings of Ireland
in the eleventh century, this ancient Eóghanancht symbol was taken over by the Uí
Briains and the abbey arms were used by King Conchobhar Slapar Salach Ua Briain (d. 1042
A.D.).9 (see ill. 6)
O'Brien heraldic arms were changed on 1 July 1545, when Murrough 'The Tanist' Ua Briain, 57th king of Thomond, surrendered his kingdom to King Henry VIII of England, which kingdom was re-granted to him with the English title of 1 st Earl of Thomond (for life) and Baron Inchiquin (heirs male), holding all in fee simple. This resignation of Thomond to King Henry VIII took place at Greenwich by the Thames River, in England, with Murrough's nephew, Donough Ua Briain, in tow being a minor. Donough later became 2 nd Earl of Thomond and created Baron Ibrackan (his line ended d.s.p. in 1774, with the Viscounts of Clare). To show this resignation of the Gaelic Order and showing loyalty to the new king and government, the old heraldic arms were discarded and Henry VIII granted to Murrough his own personal arms, ' Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or, ' (see ill.8) but with a difference.
The lions would be split into the heraldic metals of gold and silver for differencing. These new arms would read as, ' Gules three lions passant guardant in pale per pale Or and Argent. ' 12 From an English point of view this was a great honor, but to the clan, the Irish and Gaelic Order, it was surrender and defeat.12 (see ill.9) From an English point of view this was a great honor, but to the Ui Briain Clan, the Irish, and the Gaelic Order, it was surrender and defeat.13
At this same time the name of Ua Briain was anglicized to that of O'Brien by England, and Murrough and his followers were to stop practice of Gaelic speech, culture, and convert to the Church of England, this included all followers and servants. 13a
What is interesting to note, is that the ancient arms were not lost but transferred to become the crest. The only difference was the addition of clouds. This alludes to the arms Gaelic motto: ' Lamh Láídir an Uchtar (the strong hand uppermost). ' At this same time the O'Brien arms became quartered with three piles. Author Ivar O'Brien believes that this may be an earlier symbol (it first appears in 1543 as the 2nd and 3rd quarters with the lions to Murrough O'Brien, Baron Inchiquin),14 possibly belonging to the O'Briens of Arra. However there are strong circumstantial evidence that this was adopted with a difference from the Anglo-Norman family of Devonshire and Pem brokeshire, Wales. This family's surname is de Bryan , founded by a knight named Guy de Bryan. The de Bryan's had a branch of the family stationed in Ireland and in time they became the Marshal of Ireland.
[ILL.14] de Bryan arms.
[ILL.10] Murrough O'Brien's arms 1543.
Later the de Bryan descendants settled around Dublin and heavily in County Kilkenny, and a few in County Clare. The main male line became d.s.p. in 1390 A.D. with the passing of Sir Guy de Bryan, K.G. (see Figure 13). It is speculated by Ivar O'Brien that possibly King Brian Catha Ua Briain, King of Thomond, upon his arrival at Dublin to swear fealty to King Richard II, saw that with no male heirs of the de Bryan family, assumed the de Bryan symbol because of name similarity. The de Bryan arms are, ' Or three piles meeting in base Azure. ' (see ill.11)The O'Brien quarter is differenced as, ' Argent three piles meeting in base Gules. 'In the third quarter is 'Or a pheon (arrow head) Azure. ' 15 (see ill.10).
Again only speculation to the arrow head's meaning and author Ivar O'Brien suggest's that this is to show loyalty to Sir Henry Sidney, the Lord Deputy of Ireland at this time, whose personal arms used the pheon.16
The second motto of ' Viguer du dessus, ' is a poor French translation of the Gaelic motto. The French motto means, ' strength from above. ' Which made it's first appearance in 1615.17(see ill.17)
On a corbel next to the fireplace at Lemenah Castle, the Baronet line of the O'Briens also carved in stone a unique Celtic knot called ' The O'Brien Knot. ' This badge symbol is used extensively by the Lemenah and Dromoland O'Briens.18 (see ill.14).
Today, The O'Brien, Sir Conor O'Brien, Chief of the O'Brien Clan, has extended the use of the basic O'Brie n arms, Gaelic motto and crest for use by the O 'Brien clansmen/women and this includes The O'Brien Celtic knot. These arms may be displayed as outlined at the beginning of this article by M acLysaght. Use of the qu artered arms , supporters, baronet's badge, dual motto and baron's coronet, are strictly for use by the Chief, The O'Brien, who's personal arms these various elements are.19 (see ill.17). An example with supporters and baron's coronet can be found in Kennedy 's Book of Arms.
The last heraldic symbol used by the O'Brien Clan was the regimental banner of Daniel O'Brien, 4 th Viscount Clare, who commanded the Irish regiment in the service of France known as 'Clare's Regiment (a.k.a. Clare's Dragoons).' This regiment was originally organized by Charles O'Brien, 3 rd Viscount Clare, for King James II army during the Williamite War in Ireland in 1688-1690.
When King James' army was defeated in Ireland, rather then serve the new king, William of Orange, the Irish soldiers volunteered to follow their king into exile. Many served in the armies of France, Spain and austria. These regiments were known as "the Wild Geese." The nickname came about at the sea-ports in Ireland where on the ship manifest the carg listed as wild geese were actually recruits for the Irish regiments abroad (France, Spain and Austria). The wild geese cargo listing was to fool the harbor-master. The wild geese continued until the units were disbanded at the beginning of the French Revolution in the early 1790s.
[ILL.15] Clare Regt. banner.
Uniforms for the Irish regiments in the service of France were basically white pants, shirt and knee socks, with a red coat that was trimmed in the regiments color: black for Dillon, green for Mountcashel, yellow for Clare, etc. With a matching colored vest. A black tricorn hat with a white cockade that indicated their Jacobite support (see ill.16).20
Uniform of the Irish regiments in the service of France
The regimental flag was quartered with a red cross of St. George overall, fimberated white.
Quarters one and four were the regimental color of yellow, and quarter two and three were red. A gold Stuart crown was above a gold harp (that was stringed in white) which was centered in the cross. In each quarter the gold Stuart crown was bendwise; sinister in quarters 1 and 4, and dexter in quarters 2 and 3. Th emotto, ' In hoc signo vinces ' is Latin for ' in this sign we shall conquer. '21 (see Figure 15).
1.. The court of the Lord Lyon, Scottish Crest Badges, leaflet #2. (Edinburgh: 1993.)
2. Edward M acLysaght, Irish Families: Their Names, Arms and Origins. New York: Crown Publishers, 1972. P p. 10-12.
3. John Grenham , Clans and Families of Ireland: The Heritage and Heraldry of Irish Clans and Families. (Secaucus, New Jersey: The Wellfleet Press, 1993) Pp. 72-73.
4. Lt. Col. Robert Gayre of Gayre and Nigg, The Nature of Arms. (Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1961) P.92.
5. Count of. Clandermond, ' Gaelic Heraldry and the Kingdom of Desmond, ' Heraldry. The Augustan Society. Vol. III. 2 (1995): Pp. 4-11.
6. Donnchadh Ó Corráin and Fidelma Maguire, Gaelic Personal Names. ( Dublin: The Academy Press, 1981).
7. Proinsias Ó Conluain, ' The Red Hand of Ulster, ' Dúiche N éill. O Neill Country Historical Society. #5, 1990. Pp. 24-38.
8. Sir Lee MacMahon, ' Some Celtic Tribal Heraldry and Ancient Arms of Ireland, ' Irish-American Genealogist. The Augustan Society: Torrance, CA. Annual 1979. Pp. 256-259.
9. Hibernian Society's publicans in early 1900s.
10. Clandermond, p. 7.
11. John J. Kennedy, ' The Arms of Ireland: Medieval and Modern, ' The Coat of Arms IX. #155, Autumn 1991: London. Pp. 91-109.
12. Letter from Deputy-Herald Fergus Gillispie to Garry Bryant, 1991; Micheal Ó Coma in, Irish Heraldry. (Swords, Ireland: Poolbeg Press, Ltd., 19 91). P. 32-33.
13. Donough O'Brien , History of the O'Briens: From Brian Boroimhe, ad., 1000 to ad. 1945. (London: B.T. Batsford, Ltd., 1947) Pp. 50-54 & 198.
14. Ó Comain, p. 57 . Note - the first recorded arms of an Irish prince are those of Hugh O'Neill, King of Ulster, who died in 1325; the oldest document relevant to Irish heraldry bears the seal of Roderick O'Kennedy, 1356. Ó Comain, p. 32.
15. Ivar O'Brien, "The O'Brien Arms a speculation of their origin," The Royal O 'Briens: A Tribute. 1992. P. 61.
16. Ivar O'Brien, O'Brien of Thomond: The O'Briens in Irish history, 1500-1865. (London: Phillimore, 1986) P. 16.
17. Ivar O'Brien, O'Brien of Thomond: The O'Briens in Irish history, 1500-1865. (London: Phillimore, 1986) frontispiece.
18. Risteard Ua Croin in, and Martin Breen ' Interesting Remains at Lemeneagh, ' The Other Clare. Vol/Issue 11: Pp. 46-48.
19. Meeting between Sir Conor O'Brien and Garry Bryant, 14-15 February 1997. Farmington, Utah, U .S.A.; Kennedy 's Book of Arms. (Canterbury, England : Achievements Ltd., ).
20. Harman Murtagh, "Irish Soldiers Abroad, 1600-1800," A Military History of Ireland. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996)P.298.
21. Jane Urwick, ' Banners of the W ild Geese, ' The Coat of Arms,IV #115, Autumn 1980: London. Pp. 285-289.
22. Urwick, 286-287.
Cover art of Celtic lion head is reported to be from the ring worn by King Brian Boru.
ill 1 - Norman arms: Roche, Fitzgerald, de Lacy, Burke
ill 2 - Anglo-Irish arms: O'Cullen, O'Lynch, O'Kennedy, O'hegarty.
ill 3 - Irish arms: O'Malone, O'Donovan, O'Carroll, O'Conner
ill 4 - Irisn arms: MacEgan, O'Keane, O'Neill, O'sullivan
ill 5 - St. James Abbey, Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany.
ill 6 - Province arms of Connacht.
ill 7 - ancient O'Briain arms.
ill 8 - King of England arms.
ill 9 - Modern O'Brien arms.
ill 10 - Murrough O'Brien arms.
ill 11 - Sir Guy de Bryan K.G., arms.
ill 12 - Possible arms of Mac-I-Brian Arra.
ill 13 - Lemenah castle, County Clare Ireland.
ill 14 - O'Brien knot.
ill 15 - Banner of Clare's Regiment in the Service of France.
ill 16 - Foot soldier in clare's Regiment.
ill 17 - full achievement of arms for Sir Conor O'Brien.
ill 19 - Map of Thomond.