Annals of Inisfallen, Pre-Patrician Section

Author: unknown


[The numbers refer to the paragraphs of the Text and to (unnumbered) entries thereunder. The words mac(c), 'son,' and meic(c), 'of the son' (usually in their abbreviated forms m. and mc. in the text), and hua, 'grandson,' are not translated, when they occur solely with Irish names in a Latin context. Other isolated Irish words and glosses in Latin contexts are translated in the footnotes to the text. In the translation below italics are used to indicate translations of Latin passages in Irish contexts, and Latin words where the Irish text breaks off.]

At this time the Fir Bolg, viz. Gann and Sengann occupied [...]

At this time the Tuatha Dé [Danann], viz. Delbaeth and Bres, two sons of Elatha, and the Dagda, Mac ind Óc, Lug son of Eithliu, Dian Cécht, Goibnenn the smith, Luchtaine the wright, and Crédne the craftsman, overcame the Fir Bolg.

The sons of Míl took Ireland. Míl, son of Bile, was their father. There were four sons of Míl, viz. Ír and Éber and Éremón and Donn, and [...] was the fifth. This, moreover, is recounted in the Invasion of Ireland: it was at the end of twenty-seven years after the death of [...] , son of Iardonail, that the sons of Míl of Spain, son of Bile son of Bríge son of Ném son of Dá Thó son of Bregant son of Brath, etc. to Adam, came from Scythia. Míl son of Bile, then sets out from Scythia into exile after slaying Reflóir, son of Némi, in contending for sovereignty, with four ships on a sea-expedition, and in each ship fifteen married couples as well as an unmarried mercenary soldier. They remained three months in Taprobane Island. Another three months at sea until they reached Pharaoh, king of Egypt, [...] there. They remained seven years with Pharaoh in Egypt [...] they practised their various arts and various actions. Scotta, Pharaoh's daughter, married Míl, son of Bile, in the eighth year


Pharaoh was drowned subsequently with his host in the Red Sea. When he [Míl] and his people find out that, they set out by sea with the same number and Scotta, Pharaoh's daughter, in addition, and they landed in Taprobane Island. They remained a month in it. They voyaged after that around Scythia to the entrance of the Caspian Sea. They anchored twenty-seven days in the Caspian Sea by reason of the singing of the mermaids until Caicher the druid, delivered them. They rowed after that past the promontary of the Rhiphaean Mountain, coming from the north, until they landed in Dacia. They remained a month there. Caicher the druid, said to them: Until we reach Ireland we shall not halt. They then rowed past Gothia and past Germania to Bregantia and they landed in Spain. They found it uninhabited on their arrival. They remained there, dwelling in it, for thirty years, and it was from it 'Míl of Spain' was named; and there the two sons of Míl, viz. Éremón and Ír were born. And they are the two youngest. The two eldest, however, are Donn and Éber. They were born in the East, viz. Donn in Scythia and Éber in Egypt. A pestilence lasting one day, came upon them in Spain and twelve of their married couples, in addition to their three kings, viz. Míl Uice, and Occe, died. Forty-eight married couples and four mercenary soldiers set out after that with the sons of Míl and Scotta, Pharaoh's daughter, over sea to Ireland. A great storm arose (against them) and parted the ship in which Donn [...] was [from the others]. He and the crew of his ship were drowned at the sand-dunes in the western sea, hence the name Tech Duinn. The sons of Míl divided Ireland between them after that, as the historians relate.

The death of Éber, son of Míl, in Argedros, and his grave was made there.

In this year the eruption of Brosnach of Tír Éile over the land.

Ireland was divided into five between the sons of Cermait, viz. Mac Cécht and Mac Guill and Mac Gréine [...] the Tuatha Dé [Danann] afterwards, and these kings perished with them.


Ireland was divided between the sons of Éremón, viz. Muimne and Luigne and Laigne. Nuadu Argatlám [...] a lad at that time. Every family [...] subsequently in Ireland is of the race of Nuadu on account of his maintenance by his kinsmen and on account of his patience.

At this time the eruption of Loch dá Chaech.

Ireland was divided after that between Cermna and Sobairche, [the division being] from Inber Colptha to Luimnech.

In this year the eruption of Siúir (?) and Eochair and Féil

    1. From Abraham until David
      Was accepted into the enduring kingship
      Forty-two years
      [And] a fair nine hundred with certainty.
    2. From the creation of the elements, correct [are]
      Ninety—'tis no new reproach—
      Eight hundred, as he reckons,
      [And] two great thousand.

The eruption of Daball and Calann over the land.

There are, then, two Syrias, viz. Syria of the Assyrians and Syria of the Children of Israel.

The eruption of Loch Iairn and Loch Uair and Loch Cé and Loch Aillinne and Loch Febail and Loch Gabair and Dubloch.

The eruption of Loch Éirne over the land.

The eruption of [Nith] Némannach in Mag Muirthemne.


Ireland was divided into twenty-five parts between the sons of Úgaine Mór, son of Eochu Buadach, for it was Úgaine Mór who first held Ireland after the chieftains of the Dagda, viz. Cobthach Cael Breg in Brega and Laegaire Lorc in Liphe.

Now begins the sovereignty of the Medes after the termination of the reign of the Assyrians.

There were three kings of Ireland, who were from Munster: Eochaid Aircdech, Eterscél Mór, and Conaire Mór maccu Iair. The latter was the last king of Ireland from Munster.

War between Laigin and Leth Cuinn, in which Cobthach Cael Breg fell.

    1. From the beginning of the kingship
      To the captivity of the City
      There are seventy-three years
      And three hundred—a fair portion.
    2. From Adam to the captivity
      Of the City he reckons
      Sixty-three years
      And three hundred and three thousand.

moritur. Nabuchodonosor held the kingship for forty-three years.

Not indeed, for the captivity does Matthew reckon this time, but for the amount of the honour which was paid to Ioachim therein.

    1. Let us recount the kings of the Persians
      Without rejection and without disrespect:
      The most noble was Elam— a strong lord—
      Son of Sem, son of Noah, son of Lamech.


They were called Persians from Persius—he was the son of Job—who gave them that name.

    1. One of their fierce kings seized the world
      Without fear, without tyranny (?)
      Cyrus, son of Darius, weakened its strength (?)
      [And] brought the captives from Babylon.
Fifty thousand was the number of these captives, with five thousand vessels of gold and four hundred vessels of silver. The king gave them all permission to go to Jerusalem at the end of the seventh month. Zarobabel was the name of the man who was their leader, and Jeshua, son of Josedek, was the priest, and Esdras the prophet. Nehemiah moreover, was the other leader, who built the walls of the city after reaching the south. Cyrus was in the sovereignty for thirty years, and he fell in Scythia together with three hundred thousand. By this Cyrus, viz. Cyrus son of Darius, Babylon was built.

scribit, i.e. Holofernes was the leader of his host. Therefore Judith cut off his head.

Together went ten tribes from the Assyrians and two tribes from Babylon.

It is from that year Daniel reckons the seventieth week ad Passionem Christi [...]

Artarxerxes Darii filius annis .xl. His cognomen was Mnemon, as the poet said:

    1. Artaxerxes Mnemon, the handsome,
      Vast was his dwelling,
      A son, who faultlessly overwhelmed a plain
      Of Darius and Parysatis.
    2. For forty famous years
      Submission was made [to him] without any threat;
      Ahashuerus, without deception,
      Was his name among the Hebrews.

    3. p.51

    4. Among them was the pleasant, bright, keen one,
      The noble maiden Esther;
      For her the king preserved
      The many thousands unhurt.
    5. When Haman of the contest nearly caused
      A complete slaughter of the race of Abraham,
      The king was not slow of foot, he was vigorous,
      He prevented [it] for the sake of Esther.
    6. It is Haman who was chastised for it—
      For the generous renown of truth—
      He was (I shall tell it) made wretched,
      And thereby Mardochaeus was extolled.

    1. Persians in kingship until then
      Without rejection, without contempt:
      Twelve kings—'tis no lie for fame—
      For two hundred and thirty years.
    2. Greeks were [in the kingship] from that out,
      They carried off the cattle of the territories;
      On account of the number of their powerful ones without weakness,
      Every learned person is relating it.

It was after that, the power of the Greeks spread to the four corners of the world, as the poet said

    1. [...]
      man of contest (?)
      Alexander son of Philip;
      He brought Asia under a vexatious tribute (?)
      From Spain to India.
    2. From Ethiopia he was king
      To the bright Rhiphaean Mountains;
      For five years after the death of Darius
      Submission was made by Adam's seed.

    3. p.52

    4. He was a lad of twenty good years
      When he proposed an expedition (?);
      It was wisdom to solicit him for his bounty (?),
      His whole age was thirty-two.
    5. In pleasant Babylon in the East
      At a feasting contest by his people
      He died of poison—ceaseless conflict—
      'Twas a loss for nobility.
The kingship was divided after him into twenty-four parts, and it was carved up again and divided between four persons, viz. Ptolemy son of Lagus in Egypt, Philip the brother of the king, i.e. Alexander, in Macedon, Antigonus in Asia Minor, Niccanor Seleucus in Syria and in Babylon.

Greeks were chief sovereigns for two hundred and eighty-six years. They had twelve kings, and a queen, viz. Cleopatra, and she reigned last until Julius Caesar deposed her.

Ireland was divided into five between Conchobar, Cairpre Nia Fer, Tigernach Tétbannach, Dedad son of Sen, and Ailill son of Mága.

    1. If it be from the burning of the Temple
      To the birth of Christ in succession (?),
      There are eighty-nine years
      In addition to five hundred.
    2. A fair fifty-two years
      From the creation of the world
      [In addition to] nine hundred [and] three thousand
      To the birth of Christ in the flesh.

The first year of the beginning of the cycle, that is the year in which Christ was born, viz. the second year of the Decemnovennial [Cycle] Finit. Amen.

If Christ's age be thirty-four years, [the Passion] is on the fifteenth of the Kalends [of April], the fourteenth of the Paschal. If, however, it be thirty-three and a half, the Passion is on the eighth of the Kalends of April, and the Resurrection is on the sixth of the Kalends of April,


quod a multis, etc. This is the number from the beginning of the cycle to the Passion, 565; et xu.a luna crucifixus, etc.

Lugaid Reoderg, son of the Trí Finn of Emain, reigned 26 years. There were thirty kings from Leth Cuinn from Lugaid until Diarmait, son of Cerball.

The eruption of Linnmuine over Liathmuine, as a result of which the race of Dubthach Daeltenga, a comrade of Fergus son of Róich, became extinct, or was overthrown, save only the Corcu Óche.

Tuathal Techtmar reigned 30 years. It is to him the Bóruma Laigen was first paid.

Ireland was divided into two between Mug Nuadat, i.e. king of Munster, and Conn Cétchathach, viz. [the division running] between the two Áth Cliath. Seven kings of the Pictish peoples ruled over Ireland before Conn Cétchathach.

A battle at Fochart Muirthemne. The Picts and Fiachu Araide were defeated by Fiachu Mullachlethan son of Eógan from Munster, and by Cormac Ulfhata.

Fergus and Domnall, two sons of Mac Erca, annis duobus, etc.

Colmán Rímid and Aed Sláne reigning together for 9 years.

Aed Alláin, who imposed the Bóruma Laigen, reigned 7 years.

Conall Cael and Cellach, two sons of Mael Coba, reigned 9 years.


Fínnechta Fledach, son of Dúnchad: it was he who remitted the Bóroma Laigen to Moling of Luachair for a poem which Moling had composed for him. For during the reign of forty kings it was paid, viz. from Tuathal Techtmar to Fínnachta. That was the recompense for the two daughters of Tuathal, whom Eochu son of Eochu, king of Laigin, wantonly killed. This, moreover, was the Bóroma: thrice five thousand cows, and thrice five thousand boars, and thrice five thousand mantles. Each of these also [to be paid] yearly. It was thus the tribute used to be paid. This Fínnechta reigned ten years.